1. What is Endosulfan?
a. Endosulfan is a restricted-use pesticide that is particularly effective against aphids, fruit worms, beetles, leafhoppers, moth larvae, and white flies on a wide variety of crops.
b. It is not approved for residential use.
c. Endosulfan is applied to crops by aerial or ground-level foliar spray.
d. Endosulfan pesticide was used widely on crops like cashew, cotton, tea, paddy, fruits and others until 2011, when the Supreme Court banned its production and distribution.
2. Where is Endosulfan found?
a. Endosulfan can be released into the air, water and soil in areas where it is applied as a pesticide.
b. Endosulfan is applied directly to plants and soil during its use as pesticide.
c. Endosulfan residues can be present in food.
3. How might I be expose to Endosulfan?
a. Dietary intake is expected to be the main source of endosulfan exposure to the general population.
b. Exposure will also occur, although to a much lesser extent, by breathing contaminated air or drinking contaminated water or if you touch fruits or plants that have been sprayed with endosulfan.
c. Farm workers are expected to be exposed to higher amounts of endosulfan compared to the general population.
d. individuals who are occupationally exposed to endosulfan or individuals living in the proximity of sites where endosulfan was produced or sites where endosulfan was disposed of.
4. How can Endosulfan enter and leave my body?
a. Endosulfan can enter your body from water, food, or soil.
b. Endosulfan has been detected in the urine of exposed people.
c. In animals, endosulfan and breakdown products leave the body mainly in the feces within a few days or weeks.
5. How Can Endosulfan affect my health?
a. alterations in the levels of thyroid hormones and some sex hormones in the blood.
b. could impair the immune system of the animals
c. reduce the amount and quality of the sperm;
d. reduce the level of testosterone, a sex hormone, in the blood.
f. late sexual maturity,
g. physical deformities,
h. poisoning, among others.
6. How can Endosulfan affect children?
a. Endosulfan has been found in human breast milk, which means that mothers can transfer this chemical to their babies by nursing.
7. Non-degradable pollutants (POPs) like chlorinated hydrocarbons which cannot be metabolized by living organisms, move through various trophic level in an ecosystem.
8. Movement of these pollutants involves two processes:
9. Bioaccumulation – refers to how pollutants enter food chain; there is an increase in concentration of pollutants from environment to first organism in food chain.
10. Biomagnification – refers to tendency of pollutants to concentrate as they move from one trophic level to next level.
a. For biomagnification to occur, pollutants must be
iii. soluble in fats,
iv. biologically active