- Meghalaya is a state in Northeast India. The name means “the abode of clouds” in Sanskrit.
- The population of Meghalaya as of 2016 is estimated to be 3,211,474. Meghalaya covers an area of approximately 22,430 square kilometers, with a length to breadth ratio of about 3:1.
- The state is bounded to the south by the Bangladeshi divisions of Mymensingh and Sylhet, to the west by the Bangladeshi division of Rangpur, and to the north and east by India’s State of Assam.
- The capital of Meghalaya is Shillong.
- Meghalaya is one of the Seven Sister States of northeast India.
- The state of Meghalaya is mountainous, with stretches of valley and highland plateaus, and it is geologically rich.
- It consists mainly of Archean rock formations.
- These rock formations contain rich deposits of valuable minerals like coal, limestone, uranium and sillimanite.
- Meghalaya has many rivers. Most of these are rainfed and seasonal. The important rivers in the Garo Hills region are Ganol, Daring, Sanda, Bandra, Bugai, Dareng, Simsang, Nitai and the Bhupai.
- In the central and eastern sections of the plateau, the important rivers are Khri, Digaru, Umiam, Kynshi (Jadukata), Mawpa, Umiam or Barapani, Umngot and Myntdu.
- In the southern Khasi Hills region, these rivers have created deep gorges and several beautiful waterfalls.
- The elevation of the plateau ranges between 150 m (490 ft) to 1,961 m (6,434 ft). The central part of the plateau comprising the Khasi Hills has the highest elevations, followed by the eastern section comprising the Jaintia Hills region.
- The highest point in Meghalaya is Shillong Peak, which is a prominent IAF station in the Khasi Hills overlooking the city of Shillong. It has an altitude of 1961 m.
- The Garo Hills region in the western section of the plateau is nearly plain. The highest point in the Garo Hills is Nokrek Peak with an altitude of 1515 m.
- With average annual rainfall as high as 12,000 mm (470 in) in some areas, Meghalaya is the wettest place on earth.
- The western part of the plateau, comprising the Garo Hills region with lower elevations, experiences high temperatures for most of the year. The Shillong area, with the highest elevations, experiences generally low temperatures. The maximum temperature in this region rarely goes beyond 28 °C (82 °F), whereas sub-zero winter temperatures are common.
- The town of Sohra (Cherrapunji) in the Khasi Hills south of capital Shillong holds the world record for most rain in a calendar month, while the village of Mawsynram, near Sohra (Cherrapunji), holds the record for the most rain in a year.
- The climate, vegetation, relief and parent material constituting the ecosystem influence significantly the pedogenesis resulting in the development of different kinds of soils.
- The State is covered by the warm per-humid agro-ecoregion. However, it can be divided into two distinct sub eco-region (Zone) with thermic and hyperthermic temperature regimes.
- Soils of warm per humid agro-eco sub-region (zone) with thermic temperature regimes
- Soils of warm per-humid agro-eco region (zone) with hyperthermic temperature regime
- The wealth of a country or state is counted on the collection of the minerals that it contains. Meghalaya is a state of the north eastern region which is blessed with natural resources. It is known as the queen of hills and is also recognized as a treasurer of many valuable minerals.
- The Meghalaya minerals include the following:
- Clay and Kaolin
- Quartz and Feldspar
- Base Metal
- Meghalaya minerals are largely used in mineral based industries.
- Tertiary coal is one of the best minerals of Meghalaya which is mainly sub-bituminous type.
- Meghalaya is well known for a depositor of world’s best sillimanite which is mainly found in the West Khasi Hills. These natural sillimanite factories were formed in collaboration with corundum.
- Phospherite is a fertilizer mineral which is a natural resource for farming industries. This item is largely found in Sung Valley, Rewak area of Garo Hills and in Jaintia Hills Districts. According to the result of the Geological survey of India the collection of Phospherite in Meghalaya is about five million.
- About 5,000 million tonnes limestone is located in Meghalaya. Minerals in Meghalaya include collection of granite also.
- The granite deposits of Meghalaya are mainly seen in the northern and eastern parts of the Garo Hill district and in Jenjal and Hallidayganj.
- The minerals at Meghalaya also include a huge collection of valuable metals like gold and uranium.