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Who are Rohingya people?

  • The Rohingya are considered the most persecuted minority in the world.


  1. 8th century: The Rohingya lived in an independent kingdom in Arakan now known as Rakhine state.
  2. 9th & 14th century: The Rohingya came in contact with Islam through Arab traders.
  3. 1784: Burman king Bodawpaya conquered Arakan.
  4. 1824 to 1942: Britain captured Burma and made it a province of British India.
  5. 1942: Japan invaded Burma, pushing out the British.
  6. 1945: Britain liberated Burma from Japanese occupation with the help of nationalist and Rohingya fighters.
  7. 1948: Tensions increases between Burma and the Rohingya, many of whom wanted Arakan to join Pakistan.
  8. 1977: More than 200,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh following a military operation.
  9. 1982: A new immigration law did not recognise the Rohingya as one of the 135 ethnic groups.
  10. 1991: More than 250,000 Rohingya refugees fled prosecution.
  11. 2012: Riots between Rohingya and Rakhine Buddhist killed more than 100 people, were mostly Rohingya and some tens of thousands of people were driven to Bangladesh.
  12. August 25, 2017: Military began clearance operations following attacks by Arakan militants.

Place set to fire by security forces in August 2017 Crimes by the Military:

  1. Genocide: The Army was guilty of Killing, causing serious bodily and mental harm, creating conditions intended to bring out the mass evacuation of the Rohingya, Imposing measures intending to prevent births.
  2. Crimes against Humanity
  3. War crimes.

Failure of Government:

  • Civilian authorities failed to influence the situation in Rakhine state where crime being perpetrated.
  • The civilian authorities spread false narratives, denied the Army’s wrong doing, blocked independent investigations and oversaw destruction of evidence.

Main conclusions:

  • Human rights violations in Rakhine amount to crimes against humanity.
  • Myanmar has a heavy responsible to remedy the situation.

UN recommendations:

  • The Security Council should ensure accountability for crimes committed in Myanmar by referring situation to the International Criminal Court or instituting an ad hoc tribunal.
  • The UNSC should impose sanctions and travel bans for those responsible.
  • Refugees should be allowed to return to Rakhine only after giving enough protections, including citizenship.